Olivera Knežević, Dragan Mirkov
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education.

indent Abstract
In the studies of human neuromuscular function, the function of leg muscles has been most often measured, particularly the function of the knee extensors. Therefore, this review will be focused on knee extensors, methods for assessment of its function, the interdependence of strength and power, relations that describe these two abilities and the infl uence of various factors on their production (resistance training, stretching, movement tasks, age, etc.). Given that it consists of four separate muscles, the variability of their anatomical characteristics affects their participation in strength and power production, depending on the type of movement and motion that is performed. Since KE is active in a variety of activities it must be able to generate great strength in a large and diverse range of muscle lengths and high shortening velocities, in respect to different patterns of strength production, and thus different generation capacities within the muscle (Blazevich etal., 2006). It has been speculated that KE exerts its Pmax at workloads close to subject's own body weight or lower (Rahmani et al., 2001), which is very close to the maximum dynamic output hypothesis (MDI) of Jaric and Markovic (2009). Changes under the infl uence of resistance training or biological age are variously manifested in muscle's morphological, physiological and neural characteristics, and thus in strength and power. Understanding the issues related to strength and power as abilities of great importance for daily activities, is also important for sports and rehabilitation. Performances improvement in sports in which leg muscles strength and power are crucial, as well as recovery after the injuries, are largely dependent on the research results regarding KE function. Also, the appropriate strength balance between knee fl exors and extensors is important for the knee joint stability, so that the presence of imbalance between these two muscle groups might be a risk factor for the occurrence of injuries.

Marko Trninić, Vladan Papić, Viktorija Trninić - University of Split, Kinesiological faculty; Faculty of electrical engineering, mechanical eng.and naval architecture, Split, Croatia.

indent Abstract
The objective of this paper is formation of a comprehensive hypothetical dynamic interactional process model structured by assumed constructs, i.e. processes or mechanisms that obtain real features and infl uences on athlete's performance and athletic achievement. Thus there are formed and assumed reciprocal relations between high training and competition - based stress as the input variable, cognitive appraisal and interpretation as the mediator, and mood state as the moderator based on the development of the dynamic systems theory. Also, proposed model uses basic assumptions of the Action-Theory approach and it is in accordance with the contemporary socialcognitive view of team functioning in sports. Within the process model, the output variables are measures of effi cacy evident through athlete's individual and team performance and athletic achievement. The situation, the team and athlete attributes, the performance and the athletic achievement are joined variables, and the individual and the collective efficacy are the consequence of their reciprocal interaction. Therefore, there are complex and reciprocal interactive processes in real sports and explorative situations amongst the attributes of athlete and team and the behaviour and situation that determine performance and athletic achievement. This is probably the result of an integrated network of reciprocal multi-causal activity of a set of stated assumed constructs from different theories. Thus the hypothetical model is an effort to describe elaborate correlations and/or interdependencies between internal and external determinants which presumably affect athlete's performance and athletic achievement.

Goran Vučković, Milivoj Dopsaj
Academy of Criminalistic and Police Studies - Belgrade; University of Belgrade, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education.

indent Abstract
An anonymous poll was conducted among a group of 103 first-year male students of the Police and Criminal Justice Academy following the end of the Special Physical Education I course and completion of pre-examination tasks in the 2008/09 school year. The aim of this research was to find out the views of female first-year students regarding the subject of Special Physical Education, which belongs to the group of general-professional subjects. The analysis of the poll results indicates that a large number of subjects holds that the subject in question is very significant or that it is among subjects of significance (94.17%), whereas the number of practical training hours is insufficient, being average (82.52%), and that it should be 4 lessons a week (39.81%) or 5 (31.07%). The subjects also expressed an important view of the number of theory lessons, which they found was satisfactory (58.25%) and that lessons should take place during both semesters, i.e. throughout the school year (86.41%). The students said that they preferred (87.38 %) the special part of the curriculum (hitting, levers, throws…) to the theoretical part. As for the students' views related to achievement expectations in the observed subject, it can be inferred that 49.51 % subjects achieved results equaling or exceeding their expectations, whereas 46.60 % failed to achieve the desired results. A large number of subjects, 48 (46.60%) were of the opinion that the teachers and assistants engaged on this subject were extremely correct or correct, whereas 19 subjects (18.45%) stated that they were incorrect or that their conduct was disappointing.

Şerban Gligor, Felicia Coroiu, Simona Petracovschi, Cristian Negrea, Simona Amânar –Tabără, Sorinel Voicu
West University, Physical Education and Sport Faculty, Timişoara, Romania; Polytechnic University, Timişoara, Romania.

indent Abstract
The purpose of this paper is the epidemiological analysis of alcohol, tobacco and Internet use addiction data among Physical Education and Sport Faculty students of the West University, Timisoara, Romania. Epidemiological investigation was conducted in May 2010 on a group of 79 students, using standardized questionnaires (CAGE, FAGERSTRÖM, AUDIT, INTERNET addiction questionnaire). Of the total students number enrolled in research, 77.22% responded to the questionnaires, with a mean age of 21.1 ± 2.252 (age limits are between 19 and 33 years), the majority (67.21%) were male and in the first year of study. Statistical data analysis was done using IBM SPSS 17.0 program, being considered statistically significant values of p<0.01.In the CAGE questionnaire case 21.31% of students were identified with positive screening test, the majority (11.48%) were male and came from the first year (16.39%). FAGERSTRÖM questionnaire reveals a score of 2.76 ± 2.917 for the first year and 0.96 ± 2.121 for the third year. INTERNET addiction questionnaire reveals a score of 22.03 ± 13.16 in the first year and 15.28 ± 22.96 in the third year. AUDIT questionnaire revealed an average score of 3.45 ± 3.652 in the first year and 2.74 ± 3.048 in the third year. After comparing the INTERNET use, AUDIT and FAGERSTRÖM questionnaires results, between the first and third years of study, we obtained a p> 0.01 (statistically insignificant), and when comparing CAGE questionnaire results, we obtained a statistically significant p (p = 0.01). After analyzing the data obtained through questionnaires, we observed a predominant use of all types of addictions (alcohol, tobacco, and Internet use) among first year students and at male gender.

Ante Perica, Slavko Trninić, Igor Jelaska
ECE Bulls Baskteball Club Kapfenberg, Austria; University of Split, Faculty of Kinesiology, Split, Croatia.

indent Abstract
In the present study the course of basketball game is observed as a separate and comprehensive system consisting of the succession of characteristic game situations being defi ned as states of the game. Precise identification and follow-up of various game states enables the explanation of game flow. In accordance with that, a formal mathematical model of the system "basketball game" has been founded from the aspect of kinematic description. The model enables the recognition of two basic system states which were in the paper defined like the set offense/defense and the transition offense/defense. The basic aim of both teams engaged in a match is to maintain balance in their own system of game states. Large number of states in set or positional and transition game have been listed. The system for assessing basketball game states will enable, through its empirical procedures, the computation of transition probability among states. Such an analysis of states and substates in transition and set offense and defense should facilitate understanding of the structure of the game and scientific research and evaluation of performance. This new methodological approach, based on the formal mathematical models, can be a prerequisite for research studies on discrete stochastic processes using the Markov chains. The elaborated paradigm of the system analysis of basketball game states can be applied, subject to certain modifications, to the other team sports games with the ball.

Dagmar Nemcek, Helena Medekova, Jela Labudova, Janka Perackova, Anna Pavlikova, Zuzana Sakacova
Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport.

indent Abstract
Functional fitness and appropriate level of motor performance is a major determinant of quality of life and one of the key predictors of many health outcomes in later life. The purpose of the study was to measure individual performances in different motor abilities in elderly women and compare their average value of achieved performance with existing norms from different age category point of view. From the Senior Fitness Test battery (Rikli, & Jones, 2001) that consists of six performance-based tasks validate to measure functional fitness components we picked up 3 of them (back scratch test, 8-foot up-and-go test and chair stand test). For further measurements we chose 3 additional tests like modified sit and reach test, test of lateral spine flexion and one leg stand test. 129 elderly women in age from 60 to 89 years participated in our research. We divided respondents into five age categories where we provided comparison of average value of achieved motor performance in selected tests with existing norms.Women of all examined age categories (60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79 and 80-89 years) achieved average level of motor abilities in all measured test except in chair stand test, where three age categories of Slovak elderly women (60-64, 65-69 and 70-74 years) showed even above-average level of lower limbs strength. In all tested motor abilities active elderly women presented higher level of motor performance comparing sedentary elderly women. On the basis of our results we can confirm, that Slovak elderly women have an appropriate level of their motor performance, where better results were found in-group of active elderly women. By providing different tests we are not recommending one leg stand test for elderly who are older than 85 years of age.

Dolfe Rajtmajer
University of Maribor and Koper, Pedagogical Faculty.

indent Abstract
In this study the basics of chaos theory causing nonlinear effects in pedagogies, especially in sports didactics, are discussed. However, it is important to recognize that it is the nonlinearity of the methodical procedure, which causes the creative choice of contents and working methods in P.E. and movement education at nursery schools.

Ksenija Jastšenjski, Sanja Mandarić
Skating club "Belgrade Plalilula", Belgrade; University of Belgrade, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education.

indent Summary
Layback spin is considered as one of the most beautiful and elegant spins performed in figure skating. It is also one of the required spins in competitive short program in female category. Different techniques of executing layback spin with variations in changing the positions of free parts of the body, as well as the evaluation of layback spin in accordance with ISU rules and regulations, which have been used in all International Skating Federation competitions since 2004 (World and European championships, Olympic Games) are presented in this paper. Due to very difficult position of the body while performing a layback spin, it is essential that the skaters who want to master it should have excellent agility (especially of the spinal column and shoulder and knee joints) and balance. Layback spin performance requires significant skating knowledge, so it cannot be performed by beginners. Depending on the fl exibility and creativity, a skater can execute various positions of the head, arms, body and free leg while performing a layback spin. In some cases, these variations can increase the level of difficulty, and in others only the mark given for executing this spin.

Milivoje Matić
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Belgrade.

It may seem as a paradox, but this "textual volley" (i.e. an attempt to "point" before "the issue hits the ground"), or an expert "report" was made – unexpectedly (yet, in a "counter planned way"!) and certain "author's hesitation" is notable in its design and shaping for publication"1)... Nevertheless, the idea of writing it has missed neither a motive, nor reason, but only – let us use tennis jargon – one of "winner diagonals" (in the moment when everyone expected a "parallel")... Then, on April 14, 2011 – on a day the least significant for Serbian tennis (Djokovic did not take part in the Masters in Monte Carlo, Tipsarevic was beaten in the first round, Troicki "was torturing" himself...) – on April 14, therefore, our author did not endure: "I will write something about Djokovic!..."