Viktorija Trninić, Igor Jelaska, Janez Štalec
Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Split; Faculty of natural sciences mathematics, University of Zagreb, Croatia.
indent Abstract
Structural modelling techniques and application of models that extract latent variables are recent predominant techniques in the applied multivariate statistical procedures in social sciences. We believe that correlation studies can provide adequate findings if they are supported by logical analysis or causal modelling procedures. It is important to emphasize that factor analysis methods alone do not reveal the cause of covariability and that the final result of factor analytical investigation depends, in part, on the decisions and interpretations of the researcher. The question of the minimum sample size in factor analysis, ambiguousness of results obtained by FA and mathematical problems in the use of FA is particularly scrupulously discussed in this paper. Furthermore, the effect of the factor analysis of data obtained from experiments on the scientific paradigm was analyzed, with emphasis on the current problems with its application in social sciences research. Neither method, including factor analysis, is sufficient to answer all problem issues in the field of psychology and kinesiology. Therefore, it is necessary to combine complementary methods within the research which will allow a more comprehensive analysis of the researched phenomena and a greater validity of empirical results. Finally, reducing theories in psychology to a psychometric method and theories in kinesiology to a kinesiometric method is an anomaly of numerous quantitative studies within these scientific disciplines, making identification, instead of explanation of multi-causal nature of psychological and kinesiological phenomena, a primary focus of the research.
Alatzoglou Athanasios, Athanailidis Ioannis, Proios Miltiadis, Arvanitidou Vasilia, Jelena Jovanović
Secondary school Kilkis, Department of PESS Komotini-Thessaloniki, Elementary School in Komotini, FSFV.
indent Abstract
The thought of a Physical Education Teacher (PET) being assigned the position of a Principal and exercising educational Leadership in Primary and Secondary Schools hasn't always been taken for granted, as it was the case with the other disciplines. Indicative of the hindered equal accessibility in the position of a school Principal is the fact that only since 1985 (Law 1566/1985) the Physical Education Teachers (PET) are allowed to claim the Principal's position in secondary schools. Currently, Physical Education Teachers (PET) have gained more self-confidence and identify differently their role in the Greek school. Given the fact that Physical Education Teachers (PET) already constitute the third in volume discipline occupying the position of school Principal in Secondary Education, a significant question rises: Can Physical Education Teachers (PET) be effective school leaders? The purpose of the present paper is to identify which administrative skills of the Physical Education Teachers (PET) need improvement, so as the latter to be considered effective Principles according to their teachers' perceptions. Making use of a questionnaire (Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale-PIMRS) adapted to the Greek reality, a total number of 460 teachers of 32 schools run by Physical Education Teachers (PET) participated. The gap analysis technique applied revealed statistically significant results in all the items comprised in the measurement tool. The first three abilities/skills lacking and should be developed by Principals – PET are the following: "working with multilingual parent groups" with a mean difference of 0.75 (t(454)=14,649 p=0,000); "converting the curriculum objectives into a curriculum on the school's website" with a mean difference of 0.73 (t(452)=12,859 p=0,000); and "informing parents on their children's educational advancement" (t(452)=10,117 p=0,000). The present study confirms the findings of previous research concerning the effective Principal's catalytic role in the quality of education.
Radenko Dobraš, Proko Dragosavljević, Igor Vučković, Aleksandar Gadžić, Duško Lepir
University of Banja Luka, FPES, Republic of Srpska, BIH; Football academy, Belgrade, Serbia.
indent Abstract
The Object of the present study was primary school students' motivation in physical education classes. The Study aim was to test genuine motivational program in physical education classes and assessment of its contribution to improvement of motor abilities and decrease of truancy. The Participant sample was made of two classes from each grade of primary school: sixth, seventh and eighth (N=127; 63 boys and 64 girls) for the experimental group and the same number of classes in the control group (N=128; 70 boys and 58 girls). The assessment of the motor abilities has been done at the beginning and at the end of the experimental treatment, which lasted for whole second semester, 17 weeks, and two school hours per week. We have applied earlier verified tests that estimate coordination, flexibility, strength and speed. The number of truancy from physical education classes has been recorded at the end of first semester and at the end of the experiment. Apart from descriptive statistics, we utilised T-test for independent samples and Mann-Whitney test. The students from the experimental group had significantly larger improvement of motor abilities than students from the control group are. At the same time, they had significantly less truancies.
Lidija Moskovljević, Lepa Radisavljević, Milinko Dabović
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, Belgrade, Serbia.
indent Abstract
Specificity of rhythmic gymnastics as a sport and as a teaching device are apparatus routines. Considering lack of researches, the aim of our study was to determine ages of maturity when the development in apparatus routines performance is greater. Development in essential rope, hoop and ball routine performance was examined two times per year, through four years experimental period. The evaluation is carried out three-member RG-expert committee on a scale of 1 to 10. A total of twenty-seven competitors, examined at ages seven to fourteen, participate in this study. Based on data, we can notice that speed of progress in apparatus handling technique was not equal during observing maturity period. There was not significant development in most of examined routines between seven to nine years of ages. Significant development in this period has been achieved only in two rope routines (Vij1 i Vij2R) and one ball routine to (Lop2R). From eleven to twelve years of ages, significant development has been achieved for most of routines, except basic running with rope (Vij1) and hoop routine performed with weaker arm (Obr2L). At 12 to 13 years of ages, development of routines performance has not been statistically significant.
Zoran Radinović, Ratko Pavlović
Secondary school of Mechanical Engineering, Prijedor; University of East Sarajevo, FSPE, Republic of Srpska, BIH.
indent Abstract
Motor skills are an essential segment of the anthropological premises of man and are often the subject of scientific research. Due to their complex structure is very often in studies of this segment have a different approach in defining a model that will serve as the basis for the selection and definition of manifest variables. Usually there is a phenomenological approach, but not rare studies that are based on a functional model of motor skills. This paper analyzes the area of motor skills of the population of students and athletes, youth ages with the aim of determining the difference in the space of the mechanism of central regulation. The study included 90 students who were involved in various sports teams and 90 athletes from four athletic club. Measured is 12 manifest variables from the space motor mechanism of central regulation. In analyzing the data, using t-test and canonical discriminant analysis were obtained statistically significant results (p < 0.01) that explain the differences among the respondents. The seven variables pupils have achieved a better result, and the four variables, the difference is statistically significant. The only variable MISP, MSPA, MSPOO, MFLA synergistic regulation of space and tone and variable room MKOP of structuring movements are not recorded statistically significant differences. Athletes have been better in tests of flexibility, MDPK, MSRAS which are very important in racing and high jump events.
Vesna Repić Ćujić, Irina Juhas
Serbian Institute for Sports and Sports Medicine, Belgrade, Serbia; University of Belgrade, FSPE, Belgrade, Serbia.
indent Abstract
The worldwide appearance of marathon, as athletic discipline, resulted in organizing of National Championships as well. In the majority of countries, they occurred between the two world wars, same applying to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The goal of this research was to find, gather, reconstruct and critically analyse the data about national championships from 1930 to 2010. With regard to the time frame, depending on historical events, it was divided into following periods: 1. from the 1st National Championship in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1930 to 1939; 2. from the National Championship of DFY in 1949 to 1990; 3. from 1992 to 2003, when Serbia and Montenegro ceased to exist; 4. from 2003 to 2010. The first data mentioning national championship goes back to 1930. The idea, according to the found information, was initiated by the marathon runner Dimitrije Stefanovic. During the period from 1930 to the beginning of the World War II, ten marathon championships had been held, one of which took place in Belgrade. There were only few competitors, which was also common for the national championships of other countries. During the period from 1949 to 1991, marathon was mainly organized within the national championships together with other disciplines, and after that, it became part of mass marathons. The analysis of quality and quantity of marathon national championships showed a great diversity. The results and number of competitors participating in marathons as part of the national championships were affected by: politics, the way of organizing marathon races, important events' dates, and later on prize money paid by the organizers of mass marathons.
Vladimir Manojlović, Frane Erčulj
Avesta Tennisklubb, Avesta, Sweden; University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Sport, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
indent Abstract
The aim of the research was to determine the impact of the focus of attention on vertical jump performance expressed through a jump height. Thirteen basketball players (body mass = 73,4 kg, height = 186,58 cm, age = 15.12 ± 0.61 y) volunteered as participants. All the subject represented a club which participated in the Croatian cadets 1. league in season 2008/09, and were tested during the season. The subjects performed two experiments. In both experiments, they performed 15 repetitions of countermovement jump, whereas in one of the experiments, during the performance of the jumps they were listening to an audio record of spectators. For both type of jumps, the subjects were instructed to stay in the air as long as possible during a single jump (external focus of attention). To determine the differences between jumps, a paired-sample t-test was used with a level of statistical significance set to p ≤ 0.05. Comparison for jump height between both type of jumps revealed no statisticaly significant difference, although the presented difference should not be denied considering a real match conditions.
Aleksandar Stanković
Basketball Club "Zvezda" Belgrade, Serbia.
indent Abstract
The aim of this research was to determine and analyze use, the way of organization and successfulness of collective defence, as well as effects of use of specific defence types. In this case of study, empirically non experimental method and monitoring technique which enables research of technically tactical activities in basketball were used. The sample of research included eight basketball teams, competitors in finals of Radivoj Korac Cup, held in Nis in 2012. In the research seven games were analyzed – four quarterfinal games, two semifinal games and one finals game. The data was collected by the monitoring technique, and analysis of collective defence is done based on variables on which, organization and successfulness of collective defence depends on. Five general variables, seven that refers to the type of defence and five variables of defence activities were included in this analysis and the results of the survey were expressed with quantitative values. With data analysis, it was realized that the team that had higher percentage of general defence efficiency was winning the game. While watching the games an impression that, the players on outer positions were significantly contributing to the efficiency of defence was made, while inner positions players showed much less mobility in defence.
Milivoje Matic was born in Obrenovac (Serbia, Yugoslavia) in 1935. He finished primary and secondary school in his hometown Obrenovac. After graduating from secondary school, he enrolled in the studies at the Institute of Physical Culture in Belgrade in 1954, and in 1959 he graduated from the institution that changed its name to the Advanced School for Physical Education. Upon graduation, from 1959 to 1962, he worked as a physical education teacher in primary school "Sonja Marinković" in Zemun (Serbia, Yugoslavia).