Robert Ropret.
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Sports and Physical Education, Serbia.
indent Abstract
This paper deals with the subject of injury in alpine skiing and snowboarding and the aim was to define the characteristics of injuries and the risk factors as the basis for establishing preventive measures. The types of injuries and risk factors were analyzed by examining previous papers. During the last thirty years, the number of injuries has generally decreased by 50-70%. The changes were recorded in the types of injuries, and the number of certain injuries increased. It was found that there was a mutual difference in the number and structure of the injuries of skiers and snowboarders. Injuries can be classified topologically and according to risk factors. The risk factors may be manifold: the characteristics of the equipment, the characteristics of the trail and snow surface, protective equipment, age, gender, physical fi tness, risky behaviours, time of day, skiing discipline, climate factors, the presence of other skiers and others. By the analysis of these factors it was concluded that there were three entities in the implementation of security measures: the state that stipulates laws (relevant ministries), owners or organizers who provide services in skiing (ski centres, ski services, ski schools, clubs) and skiers and snowboarders themselves.
V. Mrdaković, S. Kostić, N. Janković, M. Matić, F. Kukić, M. Ubović, D. Ilić.
Univ. of Belgrade, FSPE; Technical School Ub, Serbia; PROFEX – Academy of Healthy Life, Belgrade, Serbia.
indent Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze kinematic variables of side volley in elite soccer players, as well as examining kinematic variables adjustment in relation to the change of velocity and height of incoming ball. Thirty professional soccer players participated in this study. The experimental protocol implied kicking the ball towards the subject at three different velocities and three different heights. Th e analysis included a total of the following seven dependent variables: Maximum linear velocity of the foot, the knee and the hip (V_FOOT_max, V_KNEE_max, V_HIP_max), Maximum knee and hip joint angular velocities (W_KNEE_max, W_HIP_max), Distance between the foot and the hip at impact with the ball (D_hip.foot_tk), and Angle between the shoulder and hip axis and the hip and foot axis at impact with the ball (α_SHF_tk). Also, for the purpose of descriptive kinematic analysis, the variables of changed angles and hip and knee joint angular velocities were used in different phases of side volley performance, as well as the variables of changed linear velocity of the foot, the knee and the hip. The variables of side volley kinematics were measured with the 3D kinematic analysis system (Qualisys). Th e eff ects of the ball height and velocity, and their interaction, on dependent kinematic variables were tested by using the statistical method of two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures (two-way ANOVA). The velocity and height of the incoming ball had a signifi cant eff ect on V_ FOOT_max in the sense that, as ball velocity grew, V_FOOT_max increased as well, while as ball height increased, V_FOOT_max dropped. A similar effects of the ball velocity and ball height was observed for V_ HIP_max, but is observed only a tendency towards statistical significance. Also, it was observed that increased speed of the incoming ball aff ected increase of D_hip.foot_tk, as well as α_SHF_tk, while values of W_HIP_max were decreased. The statistical analysis revealed that changes in the mechanical conditions in which side volleys were performed such as a different velocity/height of the incoming ball affected the modulation of the velocity of the farthermost proximal and distal ends of the kinetic chain/hip and foot joints, while the knee joint function was primarily to fine-tune the distance between the subjects' position and the ball.
Slobodanka Dobrijević, Milinko Dabović, Lidija Moskovljević.
Sports Club "In", Belgrade, Serbia; University of Belgrade, Faculty of sport and physical education, Serbia.
indent Abstract
The development or enhancement of motor abilities follows certain patterns; during the growth period of the human organism these patterns are closely related with the characteristics which define a certain age. The aim of this study is to determine the development/ enhancement trend of specific motor abilities of young girls engaged in practicing rhythmic gymnastics. The study was carried out on a sample of 202 girls aged 5 to 14 years, divided into subsamples according to their age. The evaluation of the status of motor activities was conducted through a series of specific tests intended to estimate coordination, agility, explosive strength and balance, while a t-test was applied to determine the signifi cant differences in results achieved by the subjects of different ages engaged in this research. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the enhancement trend of motor abilities in the observed period of development does not follow a steady course. The study proved that generally the most sensitive period in the development of all analysed motor abilities lies between the ages of 6 and 11 and that during this period each of the studied motor abilities showed a different developent trend.
Joško Sindik.
Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia.
indent Abstract
The main aim of the study was to compare the differences and correlations in psychological skills important for the sport achievement in two samples: 86 Croatian trainers of various sports and 86 recreational table tennis players, using adjusted Dutch Youth Version of the Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports (PSIS–Youth). The relationship among different psychological skills are established separately on each sample, according the education level, age, league, position on the ranking list, years of playing. Th e differences in psychological skills are analysed according to different independent variables. Separate correlation matrices for the sport trainers and recreational table tennis players indicate similar trends in both studied samples. Variables such as degree, age, rank of league, position on the ranking list, years of playing low correlated with psychological skills. Among all the tested psychological skills, motivation is the most important psychological skill that distinguishes athletes and coaches in most of the independent variables: coaches who have completed their athletic career voluntarily or because of lack of further ambitions have more pronounced motivation.
Georgios Papadopoulos, Vasilios Kaimakamis, Miltiadis Proios, Dimitrios Kaimakamis.
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Greece.
indent Abstract
The horizontal bar, as a gymnastic apparatus, was invented by the founder of the German gymnastic system Ludwig Jahn in 1811 and afterwards it was introduced and developed by him and his students. Jahn's primitive horizontal wooden bar was nothing more than a bar pinned-fixed between two trees. Later on, construct manufactured horizontal bars fixed on the ground, with two pilasters and with various arrangements and sizes. The exercises were mostly static, dynamic and close to the bar, since these wooden horizontal bars did not allow large swings. At the same time a special elaboration was established for the bar, in order to make it endurable and easy to use. In the middle of the 19th century the metal bars began to appear and influenced favourably the quality and the quantity of the exercises. At the same time this apparatus and the parallel bars were established as the dominant apparatuses of the German gymnastic system. The purpose of this study was to research and demonstrate the main features of the evolution of the horizontal bar (exercises, rules and apparatus) during the first half of the 19th century.
Vladan Vukašinović, Slađana Mijatović, Sonja Kocić.
University of Belgrade, Faculty of Sports and Physical Education, Belgrade, Serbia.
indent Abstract
This work shows the results of the research which goal was to find, systemize and critically overview the information on a patriotic role of the falcon's organization and its members, having in mind reflex of all social-historical events in the period from the birth of falcons till the end of the Second World War. Social, economic, cultural, and in the first place political situations signifi cantly infl uenced the character of falcons' organizational influence. In the stormy past falcon shared destiny if its state and nation and therefore this body-exercising organization grew in time into falcons' organization. Falcon's goal besides body exercising was aiming higher goals: moral and cultural revival, national freedom, nation's unity. With enlightening of falcon membership a strong and versatile person with the sense for national affiliation, freedom and social equality was developed. Falcons' democracy, patriotism, philanthropy, belief in ideals, contributed to falcons' reputation in population, which signifi cantly influenced accomplishment of one of the main goals of the falcon movement – forming of the united country and accomplishment of higher range in military, economical, social and cultural plan. Research results point out that during the First World War a falcon was a supporting unity of nations into one state. Therefore falcons were convicted to prison, persecution and internment, execution and hanging at "high treason" court processes. Patriotic spirit and strong national as well as Yugoslav sense followed falcons later on in an uncompromising battle with separatist and pro – fascist power during more frequent strokes on state's integrity. In the first days of occupation, falconry represented a cohesion and mobilization factor in people. At the beginning of the 1940 falconry counted 350.000 members, which was considered "the second echelon" of defense of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
Robert Ropret, Dragana Janačković-Ćupić.
Univ. of Belgrade, FSPE, Belgrade, Serbia; Department for Legal and Technical Affairs PE Ski Resorts of Serbia.
indent Abstract
Safety in skiing and snowboarding may be viewed from three aspects of responsibility: the state that passes laws (competent ministries), owners or organizers of providing services in skiing (ski centers, ski services, ski schools, clubs) as well as skiers and snowboarders themselves. The subject of the present paper is an analysis of the content of normative acts in the Republic of Serbia, which refer to safety at the ski resorts. It has been established that there is a number of legal documents and rulebooks, issued by the competent ministries, and that the safety issues are considerably regulated. Deficiencies are in complete application of existing regulations and missing of byelaw documents. Thus, the ski equipment rental in ski services is not regulated in spite of a large number of injuries occurring due to the use of inadequate equipment. The system of recording and analyzing injuries is not regulated within the single system and the existing record of injuries does not encompass data significant for the analysis of causes of injuries. Measures aimed at developing safety strategies may be realized through: public policy, technology and education.